You can do a lot to prevent diabetes eye problems.
High blood glucose and high blood pressure from diabetes can hurt four parts of your eye:
Retina: The retina is the lining at the back of the eye. The retina’s job is to sense light coming into the eye.
Vitreous: The vitreous is a jelly-like fluid that fills the back of the eye.
Lens: The lens is at the front of the eye. The lens focuses light on the retina.
Optic nerve: The optic nerve is the eye’s main nerve to the brain.
Retina damage happens slowly. Your retinas have tiny blood vessels that are easy to damage. Having high blood glucose and high blood pressure for a long time can damage these tiny blood vessels.
First, these tiny blood vessels swell and weaken. Some blood vessels then become clogged and do not let enough blood through. At first, you might not have any loss of sight from these changes. Have a dilated eye exam once a year even if your sight seems fine.
One of your eyes may be damaged more than the other. Or both eyes may have the same amount of damage.
You may not have any signs of diabetes retina damage, or you may have one or more signs: